Carlisle Tack, a Fox terrier born in 1884, who was owned by John Russell.
John Russell mentions, that he doesn't want a dog to kill the fox, but to tease it until it becomes mad, and the dog must yap so that the diggers know where to dig.
Ar “Four Burrow” Cornwall people hunt in capricious terrain, that is 25 % moor. Terriers they use and small headed, with narrow chest and undocked. Their pedigrees could
be tracked after 100 years. They follow the horseman and can run all day ( Parsons ). Mr G. Williams told me, that pastor John Russell use to visit his grandfather Mr George Williams every year and take any hunting terrier that he gave to him; most of those
dogs he sold further afield. This is again "new proof" that Russell had a type, not his own breed.
An extract from Baltimore´s writing about “jack russells”.
It is totally deceptive to talk about jack Russell terriers. Mr. Russell always said , that he didn't have any special terrier bloodline. If he saw a dog he liked, he bought him, and if he was suitable for his work, he used him in breeding,, but he never kept
any special strain. This was told to me by my grandfather, my father and my father-in-law (honourable Gerald Lascelles, whom I have borrowed in other parts of this book) and r. R. L. Riccard from South Molton, that all were very close friends with Mr. Russell.
this should stop the legend that Mr. Russell would have ever bred anything else than his own strain, though certain breeders have kept their own terrier strain, of which pedigrees go now at least to 30 years & more. The late Arthur Heinemann was one of
them, and his terriers have reached a wide repetition. Yet Heinemann said, that everybody did out crosses to keep the strain vital.
location of Devonshire and Cornwall when the sea rounded the area from both sides helped Russell to keep the strain more or less pure. Though many authors insisted his strain to be clean and that it is possible to track it till the beginning, the author has
been assured that it isn't so. According to late Arthur Heinemann, whose jack russells were famous, pastor had a principle, that he added to his gap any terrier, that filled his demands of working and structure. He said, that to maintain jack russell type,
he had to bring to strain new blood every now and then, otherwise the strain would have been hopelessly inbred.
So John Russell didn't have according to his own words his own strain, but more a type, because he bought any terrier, that established the right type. No doubt during years his terriers
picked up a good repetition, local people used them in breeding and so the type became more a strain.
Mr Lascelles told, that Russell had (very barbarous, I think) a method when
testing the breed value of a dog to try it just on the limit, then kill him and then breed with his brother. The idea was, that a dog, that had lost a lot of blood, couldn't get any more strong puppies.
Mr. Robert Leighton, a famous author, says, that it is impossible to call jack
russells a breed, as f.e. seylahams, because, according to him, all fox terriers today go back to Jack russell terriers, as in the origin of the great John Peel Line....
Birth Of The Kennel Club ..
Russell had been hunting with terriers for about 40 years when the first dog show in Great Britain was held in 1859. That same year, Charles
Darwin's book "The Origin of Species" was published.
It should be said that Darwin's famous book and dogs shows themselves have a common root stock -- the agricultural stock shows that began with Robert Bakewell
at the very end of the 18th Century.
With publication of The Origin of Species in 1859, Victorian England became besotted by natural history studies. Massive bird egg, butterfly and beetle collections
were started, and keeping a small menagerie of exotic birds was far from uncommon.
Dogs, of course, were always the thing to own, and this natural trend was perhaps tweaked by Queen Victoria who herself was an avid dog collector,
and whose approval of the Society to Prevent Cruelty to Animals transformed it from the SPCA to the RSPCA.
Darwin's work and theories were expanded upon by his cousin, Sir Francis Galton. Galton was the founder of the modern field
of statistics, the inventor of fingerprint identification, and the creator of the first silent dog whistle. More importantly to this discussion, he was also the founder of study and experimentation we know as eugenics.
Galton's eugenics theories argued that species and breeds could be created and improved upon ad nauseum by selecting for defined characteristics.
To put it simply, this was Darwin' theory of evolution put
into hyper-drive. The notion that overly close or tight breeding might result in a rise in inherited defects or seriously deficient animals was unimagined; evolution was thought to be a one-way street, and by breeding "best to the best," man would
simply improve and speed up what Mother Nature had already started.
That was the theory.
It was a theory warmly embraced by The Kennel Club, which was founded in 1873, and which was deeply influenced
by Galton's work.
The Kennel Club's thesis was a simple one: Create a visual standard for a breed, accept into a closed registry only those dogs that conformed to that standard, and then encourage the breeding of "the best to the
best" of these "pure bred" dogs through a program of prize-awarding conformation shows.
Like most new organizations, The Kennel Club began on somewhat shaky legs, and sought to promote itself by trying to associate itself with "names"
and money as quickly as possible. The Reverend John Russell had no money, but at age 78 he was one of the grand old men of mounted fox hunting, and well-loved by all. Who better than Russell to judge the fox terrier class at one of the first dogs shows?
Russell was no doubt flattered by The Kennel Club's solicitous offer, and he warmly agreed to judge the Crystal Palace show. Very old, and quite broken financially, Russell had been forced to give up his hounds two years earlier (1871).
Perhaps here was a way to keep a hand in with the dogs? Apparently, however, Russell did not much like what he saw in The Kennel Club ring, for he never agreed to judge a Kennel Club show again, and he refused to let his own dogs be registered.
Russell described the Kennel Club terriers he saw as being a bit like hot house roses: "True terriers [my own dogs] were, but differing from the present show dogs as the wild eglantine differs from a garden rose."
Kennel Club's crystal Palace show 1873..
It is importent to stress to you that The English Kennel Club of today do not
recgonise the origenal Jack Russell Terrier, because the type is considered too wide and because the breed has both smooth and rough coats, so it isn't only the question of hunting qualities. I know a lot of owners would love the Kennel Club to recgonise the
Finally, to put a cap on it, Lee wrote:
Only 20 years had passed since the founding of The Kennel Club, but already the death knell was being sounded for the fox terrier.
How was this possible? The short answer is that at the time Rawdon
Lee was writing, The Kennel Club was undergoing a "terrier craze."
Why was this? One can only guess, but I would venture to say that terriers then, as now, fit both practical and psychological needs.
On the practical side, they are small, easy-to-keep dogs. On the psychological side, they are active dogs and not too "girly" for a man or active woman to own.
Fox terriers, in particular,
have a pretension to field sports about them, and they particularly appealed to those that sought to associate themselves with the money, romance and aristocracy of the mounted hunts.
In fact, the first breed-specific publication
was the Fox Terrier Chronicle,
Credit Fox Terrier Chronicle..